Basic References

Abstracts and full articles are available via links to the NASA Astrophysics Data System.

The main publication describing Tlusty, the hybrid CL/ALI method, and the concept of superlevels and supertransitions treated by means of an Opacity Distribution Functions (ODF) is

NLTE line blanketed model atmospheres of hot stars. I. Hybrid Complete Linearization/Accelerated Lambda Iteration Method, 1995, Hubeny, I., & Lanz, T., Astrophysical Journal, 439, 875 (Abstract) (Full article, PDF)

Recent developments are described briefly in several papers:

A Grid of Non-LTE Line-blanketed Model Atmospheres of O-type Stars, 2003, Lanz, T., & Hubeny, I., Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 146, 417 (Abstract) (PDF)

Model Photospheres with Accelerated Lambda Iteration, 2003, Hubeny, I., & Lanz, T., in Stellar Atmosphere Modeling, Eds. I. Hubeny et al., ASP Conf. Ser., 288, 51 (PDF)

Atomic Data in Non-LTE Model Stellar Atmospheres, 2003, Lanz, T., & Hubeny, I., in Stellar Atmosphere Modeling, Eds. I. Hubeny et al., ASP Conf. Ser., 288, 117 (PDF)


The original, detailed description of TLUSTY can be found in:

This paper describes the basic concepts, equations, and numerical methods used. However, because the program has developed considerably since 1988, the description presented in this paper is sometimes obsolete.

Other major developments are described in the following publications:

Treatment of occupation probabilities, merged levels, and corresponding ODF:

NLTE model stellar atmospheres with line blanketing near the series limits, 1994, Hubeny, I., Hummer, D.G., & Lanz, T., Astronomy & Astrophysics, 282, 151 (Abstract) (Full article, PDF)

The Ng and Kantorovich accelerations:

Accelerated complete-linearization method for calculating NLTE model stellar atmospheres, 1992, Hubeny, I., & Lanz, T., Astronomy & Astrophysics, 262, 501 (Abstract) (Full article, PDF)

Last update: October 3, 2005